GW170817 and Gaia Data Release 2: Systematic errors and accuracy of the VLBI Astrometry and X-ray afterglows
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Seeing a kilonova with the Cerro Tololo Inter-Area Inter-American Observatory: The case of a rare star pair
It is the first confirmed detection of a star system that can create a kilonova, when the stars in it collide and explode. The rare stellar pair is believed to be one of only about 10 like it in the Milky Way galaxy.
The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory detected a huge X-ray flash in the same area where a hot, bright be-type star was located.
Astronomers were curious if the two could potentially be linked, so data was captured using the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory’s 1.5-meter telescope in northern Chile.
One of those interested in using this data to learn more about the star was Dr. Noel D. Richardson, now an assistant professor of physics and astronomy at Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University.
Clarissa Pavao, an undergraduate at the university, asked Richardson if he had any projects she could work on to gain experience with astronomy research. He shared the telescope data with her and throughout the pandemic, Pavao learned how to work with the data from the telescope in Chile and clean it up to reduce distortion.
Be stars tend to have disks of matter around them, but you can see the elements in the star through the telescope. “It’s hard to see directly through all that stuff.”
A supernova rare star pair in the path of a massive, energy-rich, long-lived spherical star in CPD-29 2176
But that orbit wasn’t what they were expecting. In a circular shape, the stars whirl around one another. In CPD-29 2176, one star orbits the other in a circular pattern that repeats about every 60 days.
The two stars, a larger one and a smaller one, were whirling around one another in a very close orbit. Richardson said that the larger star was releasing material onto the smaller star, which grew from 8 to 19 times the mass of our sun. Our sun is 333,000 times larger than Earth.
The main star became smaller and smaller while building up the secondary star — and by the time it had exhausted all of its fuel, there wasn’t enough to create a massive, energetic supernova to release its remaining material into space.
Richardson said that the star had so little energy that it did not have enough to kick its elliptical form into motion.
The remnants of a dense star that was left after an ultra-stripped supernova are now in the path of a massive star. The stellar pair will not change their configuration for about 6 to 7 million years. It releases a disk of gas to balance itself and make sure it don’t rip itself apart because both mass and angular momentum were transferred to Be star.
Eventually, the secondary star will also burn through its fuel, expand and release material like the first one did. The star system will release the material through space because it can’t easily be piled up on the neutron star. The secondary star will most likely experience a lackluster supernova, and turn into a neutron star.
The Birth and Death of the Universe. Stellar Genealogy: Searching for Evidence of Massive Star Mergers on a Cosmological Scale
“Those heavy elements allow us to live the way that we do. For example, most gold was created by stars similar to the supernova relic or neutron star in the binary system that we studied. Richardson believes that astronomy makes our understanding of the world and our place in it better.
“When we look at these objects, we’re looking backward through time,” Pavao said. We get to know a lot more about the universe’s origin, which will help us chart out where our solar system is headed. As humans, we started out with the same elements as these stars.”
Richardson and pavao worked with a physicist at the University of Auckland who is an expert on star systems and their evolution. The study estimated there are about 10 star models in the whole of the galaxy, similar to the one reviewed by Eldridge.
Next, the researchers want to work on learning more about the Be star itself, and hope to conduct follow-up observations using the Hubble Space Telescope. Pavao is hoping to complete her degree and continue to work on space physics research using the new skills she has acquired.
The past can be studied on a different scale than archaeologists or paleontologists. When astronomers catch a glimpse of an unusual signal in the sky, perhaps the light from a star exploding, Stevance takes that signal and rewinds the clock on it by billions of years. Working at the University of Auckland in New Zealand, she traces the past lives of dead and dying stars, a process she calls stellar genealogy. She said there is a lot of drama in the lives of stars.
Researchers don’t know how common these mergers are, and they can’t tell whether they are responsible for creating all the heavy elements in the universe, or just a fraction. astrophysicists could answer questions like how old the universe is if they observed more of these mergers. This is where stellar genealogy can help.
The work describes the interaction between the two stars after they burned out their fuel. They started tens of millions of kilometers apart but are not very far apart from each other. Each star’s exterior was surrounded by gas known as a stellar envelope. The models determined that over the stars’ lifetimes one star’s envelope engulfed the other and their outer gases merged to become a single shared envelope.
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